Down Only Child Myths
By Susan Newman, Ph.D.
have to wonder why, when the U.S. Census reports that the single
child family is the fastest growing family unit, people tell you
to have another child (or you think you should). Those proponents
of large or larger families claim your only child will be spoiled,
lonely, or selfish. These social stereotypes and others date back
to the 1890s and have no basis in fact
if they ever did. It
is parenting style more than the number of siblings that influences
how an only child-or any child for that matter-turns out.
when someone, perhaps your parent, an in-law or friend, tells you
need to have another child, here are the real facts about only children
and the myth of misfortune that wrongly still surrounds them. The
facts are based on decades of new research.
Only children are aggressive and bossy.
Only children learn quickly that attempting to run the show, a ploy
that they may get away with at home, doesn't work with friends and
a bossy, aggressive attitude is a quick ticket to ostracism from
the group. Lacking siblings, only children want to be included and
Only children prefer more solitary, non-competitive amusements because
they are alone a great deal of the time.
This preference has more to do with social class than family size.
The interests in these amusements stem from parental values and
the home environment of middle- and upper-middle class families,
which are more likely to have a single child.
All only children have imaginary companions to compensate for their
There is no scientific evidence. Jerome Singer, Ph.D., professor
of psychology and child study at Yale University, confirms that
the imagination required to create make-believe friends "is
not the exclusive property of the 'only' child, the isolated, the
ill or the handicapped. Imaginary friends serve a purpose of meeting
a need-to confront loneliness, to combat a fear, or to compensate
for feelings of weakness in relation to adults or older children."
Any child can feel that need.
Only children are spoiled.
Being spoiled is a reflection of our society. The Chinese feared
they were raising a generation of "little emperors" when
their only child policy was in effect. Looking back 20 years later
they found the only children were not particularly spoiled and found
no difference in only children's relationships with friends when
studied with children who had siblings.
Only children are selfish.
Every child at one time or another believes the world revolves around
him. "Selfish means you are thinking of yourself as opposed
to others," explains Michael Lewis, professor of pediatrics
and psychiatry at the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School in New
Brunswick, New Jersey. "The youngster who is unable to take
the view of another is going to appear selfish. There are points
in people's lives, one of them being adolescence, when the energy
is withdrawn. Hormonal changes and physical growth during that time
may be particularly harsh and the energy to focus on others just
isn't there." In the absence of siblings, parents cultivate
the tools of sharing and feeling for others and are the best early
teachers because of trust and faith children have in their parents.
All parents can expect their toddlers and teens to act selfishly
Only children must have their way.
Children with siblings often have more "who's the boss"
difficulties because they are constantly forced to share toys, television
times, and parents. Kindergarten teacher Deejay Schwartz observes:
"It's the ones who have been jostled and have had to compete
who are always trying to push someone down, to be first in line
or yell louder in order to be heard. Onlies have always been heard
and therefore function in a very calm way."
Only children are dependent.
Because of adult guidance and lack of siblings to lean on, only
more self-reliant and independent than those who have brothers and
sisters to fend for them.
Only children become too mature too quickly.
Children with siblings relate and talk to their siblings rather
than their parents. The only child's primary role models are parents.
The result is that only children copy adult behavior as well as
adult speech patterns and develop good reasoning skills early on
making them better equipped to handle the ups and downs of growing
up. A good thing, for sure.
die hard and slowly. Pay no attention. Families with one child have
outnumbered those with two children for two decades now. It seems
the smaller, single child family is here to stay.
myths are debunked and more ammunition given to fend off those people
who want to tell you what size your family should be in Parenting
An Only Child: The Joys and Challenges of Raising Your One &
Only (Broadway Books).
Social psychologist Susan Newman, Ph.D. teaches at Rutgers University
in New Jersey, and is the author of twelve books, including Little
Things Long Remembered: Making Your Children Feel Special Every
Day and, most recently Nobody's Baby Now: Reinventing Your
Adult Relationship with Your Mother and Father. For more information
on Susan and her work, visit her website at www.susannewmanphd.com